Meanwhile, Navicula, Pinnularia, and Cyclotella became the dominant genera, represented 14.4, 9.1, and 6.9% of total sequences, respectively, in sediment samples, in which Navicula was dominant in either sediment-plateau (17.1%), sediment-autumn (13.1%), or sediment-spring samples (13.2%). Rimet F. Benthic diatom assemblages and their correspondence with ecoregional classifications: case study of rivers in North-Eastern France. Third, the weak relationship between annual-averaged TN:TP and alpha-diversity of planktonic diatoms along the Yangtze River might be resulted from the selection of simpler indicator for nutrient level in a relatively oligotrophic river (Additional file 1: Figure S14). of or relating to or happening on the bottom under a body of water. Phylogenetic distribution of reference sequence and abundant OTUs. Benthic (noun) In: Fontaine, T.D., Bartell SM, editor. Adaptor was ligated onto the amplicons for the library construction. 2009;620:135–47. • Nekton live throughout the water column whereas plankton live closer to the water surface. For example, Centis et al. Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Sedell JR, Cushing CE. Further going down to the Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain, there exists a general decrease of altitude and increase of temperature and nutrient levels (nitrogen and phosphorus). In the present study, specific diatoms were identified as preferring to different levels of light intensity (Fig. All sequencing reads were classified into 3947 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity threshold, with 3144 OTUs well matching 454 diatom species in our reference database. Typical benthic diatoms (e.g., Nitzschia and Navicula) were found in high abundance in the water column. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was performed to visualize the dissimilarity of different samples based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrices. Hydrobiologia. Article These sea-surface dwellers evolved faster than most of their benthic counterparts making them more suitable as biostratigraphic markers. Our study revealed spatial dissimilarity of diatoms under varying landforms, including plateau, mountain, foothill, basin, foothill-mountain, and plain regions, from the river source to the estuary. First let's learn how to recognize planktonic vs benthic diatom, and try out our skills. Microbiome 1992;37:232–43. Microbiome 7, 153 (2019). Generally when they hatch out, they are planktonic and at some point in their life ... A giant squid is definitely not benthic, although perhaps I should not say that because we don't know much about them except that they can be at least 15 meters long and sperm whales eat them. Diatom composition in terms of ecological guilds showed spatial dissimilarity in water and sediment samples (Additional file 1: Figure S10). Monteith reported the linear correlation between net primary production (NPP) and PAR absorbed by green foliage . For water samples, we utilized dissolved total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) to calculate annual-averaged TN:TP for 2005 to 2014 and monitored TN:TP observed at 50 stations for 2014. Ecol Indic. . A high-profile guild possesses characteristics of high resource availability and low disturbance. Combined eco-morphological functional groups are reliable indicators of colonisation processes of benthic diatom assemblages in a lowland stream. Uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds by phytoplankton and bacterioplankton. 4A). Can J Fish Aquat Sci. Geophys Res Lett. The rate of distance-decay of diatom communities was calculated as the slope of ordinary least-squares regression line fitted to the relationship between geographic distance and community similarity. Those OTUs with the best BLAST hit scores, not only an e value ≤ 10−5 but also identity ≥ 80% with respect to the reference sequence were firstly selected. In the riverine ecosystem, diatoms of glacier origin from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau were significantly different to those in the main body of the Yangtze River (Fig. Other factors affecting interactions, such as river velocity, turbulent diffusion, algal sinking, and grazing remain to be further investigated . Ecol Monogr. One-way ANOVA analysis confirmed that water temperature of the Yangtze River was significantly different between spring and autumn (P < 0.01), with the water temperature (average 21 °C) in autumn being more conducive than that (average 11 °C) in spring for planktonic diatom growth . PubMed Finally, a total of 4573 unique sequences were retained in our reference database. 32, No. 2007;86:171–8. First, we extracted all diatom sequences of 18S rRNA reads from GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). Benthic Foraminifera Planktonic Foraminifera Oxygen Isotope Stage Planktic Foraminifera Marine Micropaleontology These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology: Vol. 2016;113:E1516–25. For sediment samples, we utilized TN and TP to calculate monitored TN:TP observed at 50 stations for 2014. J Yangtze River Sci Res Inst. Six types of environmental samples were taken along the Yangtze River, including water and sediment samples from the river source region (i.e., water-plateau (12 samples) and sediment-plateau (12 samples)) and those from the mainstream in the non-plateau area (i.e., water-spring (38 samples), water-autumn (46 samples), sediment-spring (87 samples), and sediment-autumn (84 samples)). B-Béres V, Török P, Kókai Z, Lukács Á, T-Krasznai E, Tóthmérész B, et al. As adjectives the difference between planktonic and benthic is that planktonic is of or pertaining to plankton while benthic is pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean. Amplification of the V4 region of the 18S rDNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using barcoded primers DIV4for (5′-GCGGTAATTCCAGCTCCAATAG-3′) and DIV4rev3 (5′-CTCTGACAATGGAATACGAATA-3′) , where barcode is an eight-base sequence unique to each sample. As a result, the most widespread and diverse diatom genera are derived from 46 marine stations. Third, given the “River continuum concept”  and “Continuous discontinuity concept” , the dominance of benthic or planktonic algae changes with the natural riverine gradient (e.g., channel slope), and interactions are invariably interrupted by anthropogenic disturbances such as dam construction and pollutants discharge. Liu et al. Environmental parameters including water temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured for water samples according to Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) recommended by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China. • Pelagic food webs are powered by photosynthesis whereas benthic communities are normally powered by detritus drifted from the upper layers. Dissolved CO2 was extracted by transferring 25 ml of ultra-high purity nitrogen at the field sites and then equilibrated with the headspace in the sample syringe by vigorous shake for 5 min. 2016;47:130–42. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Kitner M, Poulíčková A. Littoral diatoms as indicators for the eutrophication of shallow lakes. Ecological background of diatom functional groups: comparability of classification systems. For each sampling sites, longitude, latitude, and altitude were recorded by a handheld GPS (Magellan, USA). Planktonic and benthic diatoms were not always consistent in dominant genera (top 20, the relative abundance ranged from 55.6 to 83.6%) (Fig.  also suggested that the spatial distribution of annual-averaged PAR is complex and inhomogeneous across China, using calculated PAR spatial data for the period 1961–2007 provided by China Meteorological Administration. Amplicons were purified using the AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit (Axygen Bioscience, Union City, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and quantified using QuantiFluorTM-ST (Promega, USA). We built a reference database of 18S rRNA reads composed of 4573 unique diatom sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. Malviya et al. Based on our results, we suggest that sill fjords maintain local long‐lived and well‐adapted protist populations, which continuously shift between the planktonic and benthic habitats. Although the most ideal sampling should be the synchronous monitoring in both plateau and non-plateau areas in the same year, the above remedial sampling is helpful considering insignificant inter-annual variations of water quality, riverine habitat, and aquatic organism in the plateau in recent years [66, 67]. The apparently tychopelagic mode of life (ability to inhabit both benthic and planktonic habitats) of B. variabilis has been interpreted as evidence for potentially widespread occurrence of such adaptation throughout the evolutionary history of planktonic foraminifera, an adaptation which would be favorable for long-term survival at times of major ecological crises (Darling et al., 2009). The former promotes movement of species and their establishment at a new location, whereas the latter alters the abundance and composition of species, according to the ability to survive and reproduce under local environmental conditions. Variation in community composition explained by environmental, spatial, and spatially structured environmental components. Ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphate. 2003;300:958–61. In order of abundance, the most common riverine diatoms in water and sediment of the Yangtze River were Cyclotella, Navicula, Pinnularia, Stephanodiscus, and Cymbella genera. Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, et al. Han L, Xu B, Qi F, Chen Z. 2003;18:225–43. Indicator values were calculated based on the relative frequency and relative average abundance of a given species in six types of environmental samples. Figure S14. Ecol Indic. JRN designed the research. Kireta AR, Reavie ED, Sgro GV, Angradi TR, Bolgrien DW, Hill BH, et al. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom. Chen Z, Li J, Shen H, Zhanghua W. Yangtze River of China: historical analysis of discharge variability and sediment flux. LEfSe cladogram of planktonic (a) and benthic (b) diatom communities from four PAR regions. Phormidium mats attached to substrate in a river. statement and 2009;636:137–51. An assessment of potential diatom “Barcode” genes (cox1, rbcL, 18S and ITS rDNA) and their effectiveness in determining relationships in Sellaphora (Bacillariophyta). Our study generated a total of 8,602,620 V4 18S rDNA reads from 279 samples. The alpha-diversity of planktonic diatoms could be partly interpreted in terms of annual-averaged dissolved TN:TP (data range from 2005 to 2014) in water-spring (Adj R2 = 0.54) and water-autumn (Adj R2 = 0.41) samples (Additional file 1: Figure S14a-b); however, benthic diatoms demonstrated an even weaker response to TN:TP (monitored data) (Additional file 1: Figure S14c-d). Overall, environmental selection is the dominant driving force on the biogeographical pattern of planktonic and benthic diatom communities in the Yangtze River. In the surface oceans, planktonic diatoms have been shown to be replaced by small phytoplankton, causing decreased primary production and carbon export, due to global warming . Planktonic vs. benthic “tops” Planktonic (floating) and nektonic (swimming) organisms are generally less affected by local environmental factors such as water depth, physical obstacles, or changes in substrate than are benthic species (bottom dwellers). UCHIME was used to remove chimeric sequences and UPARSE was used to cluster operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% similarity cutoff . J Biogeogr. Controls on gas transfer velocities in a large river. Afterwards, sample libraries were pooled in equimolar amounts and sequenced on Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 PE platform (Majorbio Company, Shanghai, China). Article  indicated that anammox bacterial abundance and alpha diversity are spatially subject to landform variations. Although the richness of planktonic diatoms seemed to fluctuate with PAR, the richness of benthic diatoms tended to rise with increasing temperature (Fig. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of the compositional dissimilarities between diatom communities demonstrated not only a clear spatial differentiation in diatoms between the plateau and the main body of the Yangtze, but also a division between planktonic and benthic groups (Additional file 1: Figure S4). 2015;15:526–42. 2010;5:e9490. Obvious difference in species composition was observed in planktonic and benthic diatoms. The spatial distribution of TN:TP in water and sediment samples varied in different sampling stations. Tsuda A, Takeda S, Saito H, Nishioka J, Nojiri Y, Kudo I, et al. Correspondence to One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) was carried out to test significance of group differences using the vegan package in R. Distance-decay patterns of diatom community similarity were described by considering geographical distance and environmental distance from the site location to river mouth among sample sites. Planktonic diatoms were dominated by Coscinodiscophyceae (about 43.76% of the total number of sequences) and Mediophyceae (17.91%), while benthic diatoms were dominated by Bacillariophyceae (54.88%) and Coscinodiscophyceae (30.96%) (Additional file 1: Figure S8). For a better understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of both planktonic and benthic diatom communities, LefSe analysis was used considering its advantages in identifying differentially abundant taxa under different environmental conditions . Although both light and temperature are essential for diatom growth, planktonic and benthic diatoms exhibit different preferences for PAR and water temperature. Nevertheless, the aforementioned environmental factors are subject to change due to human interference. To estimate the community structure for each site, the Mothur program  was used to normalize all data sets with respect to the least-well-represented data set (11049 sequences). PubMed Martiny JBH, Bohannan BJM, Brown JH, Colwell RK, Fuhrman JA, Green JL, et al. 4a, b). 2017;601–602:73–82. A set of spatial variables was generated through the use of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM) analysis based on the longitude and latitude coordinates of each sampling site . Second, the richness of planktonic diatoms appeared to fluctuate with PAR, whereas the richness of benthic diatoms tended to change with temperature. 2019;665:171–80. This is plankton that is only planktonic some of the time. Many studies examined the diversity and composition of planktonic [19, 20] or benthic diatoms [18, 21, 22] based on morphological identification. Springer Nature. 2006;4:102–12. 2003;506–509:519–24. Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schäffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, et al. a Two hundred seventy-nine water and sediment samples at 62 hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River covering the actual sinuous channel reach of length 6030 km (equivalent to 1.83 times the 3290 km straight line from start to end sampling sites). The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecoystems. Kunz MJ, Wüest A, Wehrli B, Landert J, Senn DB. Previous studies mainly focused on species composition and richness of planktonic algae, and their responses to pollutions, disturbance, as well as physic-chemical factors in large rivers [18,19,20,21,22]. Any venture to study this immense … Of these, 40 species are planktonic, that is they float in the water. Please add askdifference.com to your ad blocking whitelist or disable your adblocking software. reported the importance of both environment and dispersal-related processes in controlling planktonic diatom community structure in stream and rivers, Sweden . Zhu G, Wang S, Wang Y, Wang C, Risgaard-Petersen N, Jetten MS, et al. In marine ecosystems, diatoms were abundant in nutrient-rich coastal zones particularly at high latitudes. Article Figure S2. 2010;20:803–17. While planktonic (suspended) and benthic (stream bed) cyanobacteria share similar traits, their visual appearances are quite different. Figure S11. Comparison of three spatial interpolation methods for climate variables in China. Although Kireta et al. CAS Significant distance-decay in diatom similarity was observed along the geographical distance (Additional file 1: Figure S11), with a greater slope of the curve for water (slope = − 0.042) than for sediment (slope = − 0.038) using least squares linear regression. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, et al. Evolution of the diatoms: insights from fossil, biological and molecular data. Three negative control samples were used to monitor any contamination during the molecular workflow, negative filtration, DNA extraction, and PCR controls; however, no quantifiable DNA was detected for further analysis.
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